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-- Manuscript Group 234, William S. Pennington (1757-1826), Revolutionary War Soldier Papers, 1780-1781


Documents, Manuscripts, Maps, & Photographs

Manuscript Group 234, William S. Pennington (1757-1826), Revolutionary War Soldier

Papers, 1780-1781, 0.2 linear feet / 2 folders

Call Number: MG 234 + folder number


Commission and a diary kept as a lieutenant in Col. John Lamb' s Second Continental Artillery Regiment, May 4, 1780 - March 23, 1781.  Printed in NJHS Proceedings 63 (October 1945): 199-218, and 64 (January 1946): 31-42.

The commission was donated at the bequest of A. Pennington Whitehead in 1994.  His diary was probably donated by Dr. Samuel Hayes Pennington.


Biographical Note:

The Pennington Family of New Jersey is descended from Ephraim Pennington, one of the first settlers of Newark, New Jersey, whose father, also Ephraim Pennington, immigrated to New Haven, Connecticut around 1643.

William Sanford Pennington, the sixth of the nine children of Mary Sanford (1725-1805) and Samuel Pennington (1725-1791), was born in 1757 in Newark, New Jersey.  He was probably trained as a hatter, but at the outbreak of the Revolution joined the Continental Army and became, in 1777, a sergeant in the Second Regiment of Artillery under Colonel John Lamb and Major General Henry Knox.  He advanced to the rank of second lieutenant in 1780, and at the end of the war was brevetted captain by a special act of Congress.

After leaving the army, William S. Pennington studied law in the Newark office of Elias Boudinot, in addition to serving in the New Jersey State Assembly in 1797, 1798, and 1799.  He was elected to the State Council in 1801 and reelected in 1802, the same year he was admitted to the bar as an attorney.  During the next two years he served as the clerk of Essex County and was elected to fill a vacancy in the New Jersey Supreme Court, where he remained on the bench until 1813.  For the majority of that time, he was also the Supreme Court’s reporter.  In 1812, Pennington was the Republican candidate for governor of New Jersey and the following year won the gubernatorial election, becoming New Jersey’s governor from 1813-1814.  The year after he left office, President James Madison appointed him a judge of the Federal District Court for New Jersey, a position that he kept until his death eleven years later.

William S. Pennington married Phoebe Wheeler (d.1804), the daughter of Rhoda Lyon and Captain James Wheeler (ca.1740-1777), around 1786.  They had ten children together, one of whom, William Pennington (1796-1862), also became a governor of New Jersey.  After Phoebe’s death, William S. Pennington married Elizabeth Pierson (d.1840) on July 13, 1805.  He died on September 17, 1826.


Dictionary of American Biography.

Pennington Family File, The New Jersey Historical Society.


Provenance Note:

William S. Pennington’s commission was donated at the bequest of A. Pennington Whitehead in 1994.  His diary was probably donated by Dr. Samuel Hayes Pennington.


Scope and Content Note:

The papers consist of a commission and a diary of William S. Pennington (1757-1826) from the American Revolution.  The commission is signed by Samuel Huntington, president of the Congress of the United States, in 1780 and retroactively promotes Pennington to the rank of second lieutenant in the Second Regiment of Artillery in the United States Army as of September 12, 1778.

Pennington’s diary was written from May 4, 1780 to March 23, 1781 during his time as a second lieutenant in the army.  He describes the daily life of a soldier, writing about marches, dining with friends, letters received, visits home, and news and hearsay from the front.  The entries track Pennington’s movements during this period but also give insight into the movements of the larger army and major figures in the Revolutionary War, including General George Washington whom Pennington dines with.  During the course of the diary, Pennington himself marches from near West Point, New York to and around New Jersey and back again.  He also mentions general problems with which the army is dealing, for example looting and dueling, and the resulting executions and deaths.  More particularly, he writes of the betrayal of General Benedict Arnold in September of 1780 and the "mutiny of the Pennsylvania line" at Morristown, their surrender, and punishment (including the execution of two of their leaders) in January of 1781.

The diary has been transcribed and published in the Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, Vol. 63 (October 1945), pgs. 199-218 and Vol. 64 (January 1946), pgs. 31-42.


Related Collections:

Manuscript Group 331, William Pennington (1796-1862) Papers

Manuscript Group 675, Pennington-Satterthwaite Family Papers

Manuscript Group 1007, Wheeler Family (Newark, NJ) Papers


Folder List:





Commission as second lieutenant in the Second Battalion of Artillery in the U.S. Army, signed by Samuel Huntington, President of the Congress of the United States




May 4, 1780 - March 23, 1781


Processed by Kim Charlton, March 2000 as part of the "Farm to City" project funded by a grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission.

Submit a request to copy part of this collection


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